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PHARMACOKINETIC

Absorption

The absorption of lamivudine is occurs very quickly. The oral bioavailability of Lamivir ; Lamivudine: 86 ± 16%;

Distribution

The Lamivir is highly distributed in body. The component of Lamivir tablets are binding to human plasma protein with the range of <36% for lamivudine.

Metabolism

The known metabolite of lamivudine is trans-sulfoxide metabolite. Biotransformation is occurred by using sulfotransferases.

Excretion

Lamivir is undergoes hepatic metabolism elimination. The major route of elimination of lamivudine occurs via urine as an unchanged form. It also excreted in human milk. The terminal half life period of lamivudine is 5 to 7 hours. The renal creatinine clearance of lamivudine is 0.22 plus or minus 0.06 L/hr/kg;


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Brand : Lamivir
Ingredients : Lamivudine
Strength : 100mg
Manufactured : Cipla
Package : 100 Tablets

Dosage regimens of Lamivir

The prescribed dose of Lamivudine for adult in HIV-1 infection is 150mg given orally for twice a day or 300mg given orally for once a day in combination with other antiretroviral agents. The prescribed dose of Lamivudine for adult in chronic Hepatitis B is 100mg given orally for once a day for the treatment of chronic HBV infection along with evidence of hepatitis B viral replication and active liver inflammation. In pediatric patients usual dose for HIV-1 infections administered as The patient weighing of 14 to < 20 given one tablet of 150mg as morning 75mg and evening 75mg. The patient weighing of ≥ 20 kg to 25 kg given 1 1/2 tablet of 225mg as administer morning 75mg and evening 150mg The patients weighing of ≥ 25kg given 2 tablets of 300mg as morning 150mg and evening 150mg. For chronic hepatitis B: max dose is 100mg/day 2 years or older administrate 3mg/kg orally once a day When to take the Lamivir : Lamivir tablet should be administered with or without food.

Lamivir caused side effects

The most serious adverse effects are; Hematological toxicity Symptomatic myopathy Lactic acidosis or hepatomegaly with steatosis Aggravation of hepatitis B Hepatic decompensated cirrhosis in patient with HCV/HIV co infection. Aggravation of anemia due to patients who are co infected with HIV-1/HCV getting ribavirin & zidovudine. Pancreatitis Immune reconstitution syndrome Lipoatrophy The most common side effects; Headache Malaise Fatigue Fever, chills Nausea Diarrhea Vomiting Anorexia Loss of appetite Abdominal pain Dyspepsia Abdominal cramps Neuropathy Insomnia Dizziness Depression Nasal signs Cough Rashes Musculoskeletal pain Myalgia Arthralgia

Precautions

Hematological toxicity, lactic acidosis or hepatomegaly with steatosis & aggravation of hepatitis B infection; these are all possible adverse occurred during or after completion of therapy with Lamivir .

Hematological toxic

Periodic blood cells count should be taken. In case of neutropenia or thrombocytopenia, Lamivir treatment should be postponed.

Lactic acidosis or hepatomegaly with steatosis

This condition may leads to produce fatal cases, majorly in women. The most common adverse effect is obesity In severe condition treatment should be discontinued.

Hepatitis B co infection

To overcome the post treatment aggravation of hepatitis infection, patient should be monitored with hepatic function frequently after completion of treatment. The incidence of lamivudine resistance caused hepatitis infection; the potency of lamivudine in patient with HIV-1 HCV co infection has not been evaluated. The concurrent use of lamivudine may leads to cause this type of infection.

Myopathy

In HIV-1 infected patients who are receiving Lamivir having a chance of getting myopathy.

Ribavirin based therapy

Lamivir combined with ribavirin causes hematological problems in severe condition. Avoid the concomitant use Check the blood cell count during the therapy if necessary. In Immune reconstitution syndrome, Lamivir tablets should be discontinued



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DRUG INTERACTION

Drugs which are opposing the activity of zidovudine; The combination of zidovudine with some drugs produces antagonist effects, like Stavudine Doxorubicin Nucleoside analogues like ribavirin

Lamivir tablets are concurrent use with ribavirin, Ganciclovir, interferon alfa or other drugs may elevate the hematological toxicity effect of zidovudine. Avoid this concomitant treatment. Co administration of lamivudine with sorbitol leads to produce sorbitol dose dependent depletion of lamivudine exposure; this may cause loss of effect. Avoid this combination therapy. Lamivir should not be combined with Zalcitabine which may alters t or inhibits the intracellular phosphorylation of one another.

Contraindications

Anaphylactic reaction may occur in the patient are contraindicated to the component present in Lamivir tablets.


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